A battery is a chemical storage device used to store electrical energy in the form of chemical energy using reaction, which converts the stored chemical energy into Direct current as output. The electrochemical reaction happens in a battery when electrons move from one material medium to another.
Types of Batteries
1- Primary (non-rechargeable)
2- Secondary (rechargeable)
1- Primary Battery(non-rechargeable)
A primary battery is a battery that cannot be recharged it is meant for one-time use when these batteries are discharged discard them. These are simple and convenient sources for different portable electrical devices such as watches, lights, radios, etc. These types of batteries are inexpensive and lightweight and do not need any continence. Some of the popular ones are mentioned down there.
1.1 Alkaline battery
This is the primary type of battery, it provides energy due to the reaction of manganese dioxide and zinc metal. Alkaline batteries use an electrolyte of potassium hydroxide (KOH). Other batteries use zinc chloride or acidic ammonium chloride electrolyte. Alkaline batteries have a higher energy density and a longer life than other batteries however the voltage is the same. Alkaline batteries are disposable. It is consist of an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte.
1.2 Lithium metal battery
Lithium metal battery is the primary type of battery, it cannot be recharged however rechargeable batteries are under development in this type of battery metallic lithium as an anode. These batteries have high charge density and high cost per unit depending on the electro-light chemical. This battery can produce a voltage from 1.5 V to 3.5 V.
1.3 Oxyride battery
It is also a primary cell battery and can not be recharged and must be disposed of after one-time use. Oxyride battery is based on the chemistry of the updated alkaline using finer-grained and manganese dioxide allowing to gain of high density and oxy nickel hydroxide to maintain high voltage. It is 1.5 times more powerful than a regular alkaline battery, which allows the use it in high-powered devices such as high-power flashlights, and digital cameras.
1.4 Silver-oxide battery
In silver-oxide batteries zinc is used as the anode and silver oxide is used as the cathode and alkaline electrolyte normally sodium hydroxide. These batteries have almost constant voltage during discharging until it is completely depleted. A silver-oxide battery is a primary type of battery, these batteries are used in Apollo lunar mission the lunar rover in which the silver-oxide batteries are used due to their high energy and low weight.
1.5 Solid-state battery
In solid-state battery technology, use solid electrodes and solid electrolytes instead of liquid or gel electrolytes that are found in lithium-ion batteries. This technology is discovered in the early 19th century but back then it has some drawbacks. But after the late 20th and early 21st century solid-state technology evolved and nowadays these are used in electric vehicles.
1.6 Zinc–carbon battery
The zinc-carbon is also the primary battery type, made of manganese dioxide as a cathode and zinc as an anode. Carbon is used in the cathode to increase the conductivity and moisture in the battery. This battery provides direct current from the electrochemical reaction between the manganese dioxide and zinc having electrolyte in it. It provides up to 1.5 volts of output.
2- Secondary Battery(rechargeable)
A secondary battery means that we can electrically recharge after its discharge. These batteries can be recharged when the current pass through them in the opposite direction. The secondary batteries have less energy density than the primary batteries but these have flat discharge, high power density, and good performance at low temperatures. Examples of such applications are all the modern portable electronics like mobiles, laptops, electric vehicles, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), and Uninterrupted Power Supplies (UPS), etc.
2.1 Lead–acid battery
The lead-acid battery is a secondary type of battery, it is consist of two electrodes and an electrolyte of sulfuric acid. The positive electrode is made of metallic lead oxide and the negative electrode is attached to metallic lead. The lead-acid battery has two types flooded and valve-regulated. The lead-acid battery has energy has a low energy density of 30-35 Wh/kg however the power density is high as 150 W/kg. Low temperatures such as below 12°C start to suffer in performance.
2.2 VRLA battery
VRLA stands for valve-regulated lead acid, it is a secondary type of battery known as a sealed lead-acid battery. It consists of two plates of lead that works as electrodes in the electrolyte of sulfuric acid. This battery does not require any maintenance such as electrolytes or water. There are two types of VRLA batteries, absorbent glass mat (AGM) and gel cell. In AGM batteries the ultra-thin glass mat is used in between the plate of the battery to separate the electrolyte. lead-acid gel batteries contain sulfuric acid and silica.
2.3 Lithium-ion battery
A lithium-ion battery is also a secondary type of battery, its negative electrode is made of graphite carbon and the positive electrode is made of metal oxide. The electrolyte is an organic solvent using lithium salt. The lithium-ion battery technology works on lithium ions. In its discharge process, the ionized atoms of the anode leave the electrons and move into the electrolyte and reach the cathode and recombine with the electrons and electrically neutralize.
2.4 Lithium-ion polymer battery
LiPo stands for Lithium-ion polymer battery, it is a primary cell battery that consists of an electrolyte of polymers such as polypropylene and two electrodes one of the electrodes is made of lithium-transition-metal-oxide and in negative electrode has carbon in it. The main difference between lithium-ion polymer cells and lithium-ion cells is the electrolyte used in it. It is mostly used in a smartphone, wearables, tablets, and other portable devices.
2.5 Lithium–iron–phosphate battery (LFP)
This battery is a type of lithium-ion battery, this type of battery is capable of charging and discharging at high speed. It has features of less heating, an increased number of charge cycles, and better power density. The cathode of Lithium–iron–phosphate battery is made of iron phosphate and the anode is made of graphitic carbon, its electrolyte is made of lithium salt, these materials are used for battery better performance.